Note, Despite this document being called Tutorial two, there is no document for Tutorial One. Lecture One was an introductory session with no information relevant to take notes on.
This document mainly contains clarifications on the content of lecture two
Matilal studied at Cambridge under Klein and Strawson. He got his Nyāya certification on India and upon returning to the west attempted to translate Nyāya theories onto western analytic arguments.
Testimonial knowledge is just as valuable if it is second or third hand testimony, as long as it meets the criteria for testimonial knowledge in general.
On false testimony
Whether you find a particular testimony reliable or not depends on the three criteria for testimony. Some might say a person has no reason to deceive us, while others think they do.
Bhartrihari on language
Firstly, language conventionally originates from human development through communal interaction. It is possible for us to create language because we have both consciousness and a certain origin.
Consciousness is linguistic at its core due to its nature of applying qualities to objects. Furthermore, consciousness inherits the ability to create and use language from past lives through karma.
The universe originated from primordial unity which ha “the word” as its root. An urge to be is an urge to speak.
Within this system it is believed that all languages operate virtually the same.